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Wire Rope Sling Connections and Hitches

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Address: Malaysia Selangor Batu Caves
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Updated on: 2011-05-22 14:18
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  • KATAN WANGSA SDN BHD
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  • E-mail: sales@katangroup.com.my
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  • Area: Malaysia-Selangor-Batu Caves
  • Address: No.17501, Jalan 2, Taman Perindustrian Selayang 68100, Batu Caves, Selangor
 
 
Details
1. Connection to Fittings
 
Use a thimble to protect sling and increase D/d (the ratio of the diameter of eye to the diameter of wire rope).
Do not force eyes over hardware. Make sure that the width of hook or diameter of shackle is no bigger than 1/2 the length of the eye.

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2. Type Of Wire Rope Terminations
A Typical Wire Rope Sling
 
Our most widely-used form of slings are made of known length of wire rope of which the end is folded-back to form a loop (or eye), through a mechanical splicing process. The eye is secured by pressing it with a metal sleeve. This form of spliced eye is known as a "mechancally-spliced foldback eye"
 
This cutaway of a metal sleeve swaged onto a splice shows how metal "flows" into the valleys between strands to positively prevent ends froms unlaying when sling is used within its related capacity.

Soft Eye Machine Swaged

Thimble Eye Machine Swaged

   

Solid-Thimbled Eye Machine Swaged

 
   
   

Open Spelter Socket

   
 
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3. Choker Hitch Capacity
 
A choker hitch has 75% of the capacity of a single leg only if the corners are softened and the horizontal angle is greater than 30 degrees. Use blocks to prevent angles less than 30 degrees.
Angle of Choke
Capacity
120°-180°
75% of Vertical
90°-109°
65% of Vertical
80°-89°
55% of Vertical
30°-59°
40% of Vertical

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4. Basket Hitch Capacity
 
A basket hitch has twice the capacity of a single leg only if legs of sling are vertical.

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5. Multiple Leg Hitch
 

Understanding the basics of the Rigging Triangle will help riggers answer many key questions about rigging with wire rope bridles. The included angle is checked for proper connection at the load hook or masterlink. The horizontal sling angles determine the loads placed on each leg of the sling. The horizontal sling angles will be equal only if sling lengths are the same length and the Center Of Gravity(COG) is in the middle of the pick points.

THE RIGGING TRIANGLE

The Rigging Triangle basic facts :

  • Angular or side loading can occur at load
  • Sling length affects horizontal sling angle
  • 60 degrees sling angle is best, 30 degrees is worst choice
  • As the sling angle becomes smaller, the load is "crushed" and sling work harder
  • The fittings at load connection see the same load as the sling
  • As the horizontal sling angle angle becomes smaller, significant horizontal forces are developed. These horizontal forces add to the sling load, tend to crush the work piece, and can cause buckling.

A horizontal sling angle of 60 degrees or greater is the preferred choice and is achieved when the sling length is equal to or greater than the distance across the pick points. (This rule of thumb only works when the slings are same length and C.O.G. is in middle of two pick points).

THE LOAD MULTIPLIER EFFECT
Sling Angle Degrees
Load Angle Factor = L / H
90
1.000
60
1.155
50
1.305
45
1.414
30
2.000
Load on each leg of sling = (load ÷ 2) x load angle factor

ANSI B30.9 recommends against the use of a horizontal sling angle smaller than 30 degrees.

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6. Chart of WLL of Multiple-Legged Hitch

Triple Leg Slings have 50% more capacity than double leg slings (at the same sling angle) only if the Center Of Gravity is in the center of connection points and legs are adjusted proper (they must have an equal share of the load).

Quad (4-legged) slings offer improved stability but provide increased capacity only if the legs share an equal share of the load.

A Chart of Wire Rope Sling Capacities of various hitches are as follow :

   
Rated Capacities (Tons) of IPS Rope - IWRC
Single Vertical Hitch Choker Hitch
Basket Hitch
Double-legged Hitch
Triple-legged Hitch
Quadruple-legged Hitch

Dia. of Rope (in)

α =

90° >120°
90°

60°

45°

30°

60°

45°

30°

60°

45°

30°

60°

45°

30°

Mode factor
1 .75 2 1.7 1.4 1 1.7 1.4 1 2.5 2.1 1.5 3.4 2.8 2
1/4   0.56 0.41 1.12 0.97 0.79 0.56 0.97 0.79 0.56 1.45 1.19 0.84 1.94 1.58 1.12
3/8   1.2 0.93 2.4 2.08 1.7 1.2 2.08 1.7 1.2 3.12 2.55 1.8 4.16 3.39 2.4
1/2   2.2 1.6 4.4 3.81 3.11 2.2 3.81 3.11 2.2 5.71 4.67 3.3 7.62 6.22 4.4
5/8   3.4 2.5 6.8 5.89 4.81 3.4 5.89 4.81 3.4 8.83 7.21 5.1 11.77 9.62 6.8
3/4   4.9 3.6 9.8 8.48 6.93 4.9 8.48 6.93 4.9 12.73 10.4 7.35 16.97 13.86 9.8
7/8   6.6 4.8 13.2 11.43 9.34 6.6 11.43 9.34 6.6 17.14 14 9.9 22.86 18.67 13.2
1   8.5 6.3 17 14.72 12.02 8.5 14.72 12.02 8.5 22.08 18.03 12.75 29.44 24.05 17
1 1/8   10 7.9 20 17.32 14.14 10 17.32 14.14 10 25.97 21.22 15 34.63 28.29 20
1 1/4   13 9.7 26 22.51 18.39 13 22.51 18.39 13 33.77 27.58 19.5 45.02 36.78 26
1 3/8   15 12 30 25.97 21.22 15 25.97 21.22 15 38.96 31.82 22.5 51.95 42.43 30
1 1/2   18 14 36 31.17 25.46 18 31.17 25.46 18 46.75 38.19 27 62.34 50.92 36
1 3/4   25 19 50 43.29 35.36 25 43.29 35.36 25 64.94 53.04 37.5 86.58 70.72 50
2   32 24 64 55.41 45.26 32 55.41 45.26 32 83.12 67.89 48 110.82 90.52 64
2 1/4   39 30 78 67.53 55.16 39 67.53 55.16 39 101.3 82.74 58.5 135.06 110.33 78
2 1/2   47 37 94 81.39 66.48 47 81.39 66.48 47 122.08 99.72 70.5 162.77 132.96 94
2 3/4   57 44 114 98.7 80.62 57 98.7 80.62 57 148.05 120.93 85.5 197.4 161.24 114
3   67 52 134 116.02 94.77 67 116.02 94.77 67 174.03 142.15 100.5 232.03 189.53 134
3 1/2   88 69 176 152.38 124.47 88 152.38 124.47 88 228.57 186.7 132 304.76 248.94 176
3 3/4   100 78 200 173.16 141.44 100 173.16 141.44 100 259.74 212.16 150 346.32 282.89 200
4   113 88 226 195.67 159.83 113 195.67 159.83 113 293.51 239.75 169.5 391.34 319.66 226
4 1/2   139 108 278 240.69 196.61 139 240.69 196.61 139 361.04 294.91 208.5 481.39 393.21 278

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7. Reference Material

a. Trigonometry Table is available at

b. Metric Conversion Calculator is available at


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