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Wire Rope

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Address: Malaysia Selangor Batu Caves
Valid until: Never Expire
Updated on: 2011-10-28 16:52
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  • KATAN WANGSA SDN BHD
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  • E-mail: sales@katangroup.com.my
  • Tel: 603-6138 6204
  • Area: Malaysia-Selangor-Batu Caves
  • Address: No.17501, Jalan 2, Taman Perindustrian Selayang 68100, Batu Caves, Selangor
 
 
Details
1. Composition of Wire Rope
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2. Specifications of Wire Rope
Subjects
Option available
Diameter(Ø)
Normally in millimeters (mm), can be expressed in per one-eighth inches(").
Length
Length is normally expressed in foot (ft), and can also be expressed in metres (m) [1metre=3.281ft]. Note that when the same parameter is used in expressing sling length, the norm is a measurement from one arc-tip of the eye to the other arc-tip of the other end.
Construction

The norm is expressed as:

No. of strands x No. of wires per strand (refer to diagram above)

There are several geometric arrangements in the design of wire ropes, known as the construction of a wire rope. These include (not exhaustive) 6x19; 6x24; 6x25; 6x29; 6x36; 6x41 etc.

An additional acronym that is used in the expression of a wire rope construction (i.e. S, W or Fi) expressed the alignment of wires in a strand of a wire rope. This acronym is placed next to the numerical expression of the construction of a wire rope. The types of expression are :

Ordinary
Where the wires are all the same size
Seale (S)
Where larger diamerter wires are on the outside to resist abrasion and smaller wires are inside to provide flexibility.
Warrington (W)
where alternate wires are large and small to combine great flexibility with resistance to abrasion.
Filter (Fi)
where very small wires fill the valleys between the outer and inner rows of wires to provide good abrasion and fatigue resistance.

So the full expression of a construction will look something like 6x29Fi ; 6x36WS.

Type of Core

The core forms the heart of the rope and is the support for the strands around it. The core may take one of the several forms :

  • Fiber Core (FC),
  • Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC) - in 7 x 7
  • Wire Strand Core (WSC) - in 1 x 7
  • PVC - impregnated core (PVC) (IWRC)
Safety Factors

The rope must possess sufficient strength to take the maximum load that may be applied, with a factor of safety of at least 5 to 1. In the case of carrying personnel, a factor of safety of 10 to 1 is recommended.

The wire ropes that are supplied as rigging on mobile cranes must possess factors of safety of 3.5 : 1 under operating conditions and 3 : 1 when erecting the boom.

As for wire ropes that are used as pendants or in standing conditions, a safety factor of 3 : 1 under oprating conditions is recommended, and 2.5 : 1 when erecting boom is recommended.

Safe Working Loads

The Safe Working Load is defined as the strength of a wire rope to support the load upon the necessary factor of safety in a situation under consideration.

Therefore :

Max. Safe Working Load
=
Catalogue Breaking Strength of the rope
Factor of safety
Lay

The term rope lay signifies the direction of the rotation of the wires and the strands in the rope. Rotation is either to the right (clockwise) or to the left(anticlockwise).

In Regular Lay Ropes, the wires in the strands are laid in one direction while the strands in the rope are laid in opposite direction. These ropes are stable, have good resistance to kinking and twisting and are easy to handle. They are also able to withstand considerable crushing and distortion due to the short length of exposed wires.

In Lang Lay Ropes, the wires in the strands and the strands in the ropes are laid in the same direction. With the outer wires presenting greater wearing surfaces, Lang Lay Ropes have greater resistance to abrasion. They are also more flexible and possess greater resistance to fatigue. They are more liable to kinking and untwisting and are not capable of withstanding the same abuse from distortion and crushing. Lang Lay Ropes should have both ends permanently fastened to prevent untwisting and as such they should not be recommended for use on single part hoistlines, swivel end terminals.

The following are representations of commonly-used wire rope lays :

Left Hand Ordinary Lay (LHOL/LHRL),

Left Hand Lang's Lay (LHLL)

Right Hand Ordinary Lay (RHOL/RHRL)

Right Hand Lang's Lay (RHLL)

Tensile Grade of Wire

Several commonly used grades of tensile steel which are taken as acceptable standards in the manufacture of wire ropes include :

  • 1570 N/mm²(160kg/mm²),
  • 1770 N/mm²(180kg/mm²), also known as IPS
  • 1960 N/mm²(200kg/mm²), also known as EIPS
  • 2160 N/mm²(220kg/mm²), also known as EEIPS
Types of Finishing
The commonly-used finishings include :
  • Galvanized;
  • Ungalvanized;
  • PVC-coated;
  • Stainless Steel
Lubrication
A1; A2; A3; B; C; D
Packaging
Reels or Coils

Rope Standards and Specifications

Whilst JIS standard is the more widely-accepted standard in Malaysia, we have also the following available :

  • Japanese Standard: JISG3525
  • British Standard : BS302
  • American Standard :API9A
  • German Standard : DIN 3057,3058,3064,3069
Brand
Kiswire, Usha, Waza, Norton
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3. Important Tips On Selection Wire Rope
WIRE ROPE SERVICE REQUIREMENT
WIRE ROPE DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
Strength : the wire rope must develop sufficient strength to support the load plus the necessary factor of safety. The strength of a wire rope depends on its size, grade of wire and type of core.

Flexibility or Resistance to Bending Fatigue : the wire rope must have the ability to bend over small sheaves or wind onto relatively small drums without the wires breaking due to bending fatigue.

Strands containing a large number of small wires have greater resistance to bending fatigue than strands containing a few large wires.

Lang Lay has greater fatigue resistance than Regular.

Performing increases the wire rope's resistance to bending fatigue.

Resistance to Abrasion : the wire rope is subjected to wear or abrasion as it passes through operating sheaves under high pressure or comes in contact with stationery objects.

Large outer wires are better able to withstand abrasive wear.

Lang Lay provides greater resistance to wear than Regular Lay.

Resistance to Crushing : some wire ropes distort of flatten when they are forced to operate under heavy pressure in grooves that do not provide ample support or on drums where multiple lay winding occurs.

An Independent Wire Rope (IWRC) provides greater support for strands under heavy bearing pressure.

The coarser wire rope construction provide greater resistance to flattening on drums.

Resistance to Rotation : a wire rope may rotate as the load is applied. This could be undesirable for load control and might lead to rapid deterioration of the wire rope. Special non-rotating construction are available for specific applications. Regular Lay provides greater stability than Lang Lay, and wire ropes with an IWRC twist less than those with fibre cores.
Resistance to Corrosion : wire rope may corrode if in contact with corrosive elements or it may rust when exposed to atmospheric conditions over a long period of time. Galvanized or stainless steel wire offers excellent protection against corrosion. Special lubricants can also inhibit the development of rust.
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4. Types Of Wire Ropes
 
6 Strand
 
 

Ungalvanized 6x29Fi+IWRC

Ungalvanized 6x36WS+IWRC

Ungalvanized 6x37+IWRC

 

Ungalvanized 6x19S+PVC(IWRC)

Ungalvanized 6x29Fi+PVC(IWRC)

Galvanized 6x36WS+IWRC

 
 
8 Strand
 
   
 
Rotation Resistant
 

Galvanized Swaged 4x39+FC

Ungal or Gal 19x7+IWRC

Galv. Compacted 35x7+IWRC

 
 
Special- Finished

PVC-coated 6x7+FC

PVC-coated 6x19+FC

Stainless steel 7x7

Stainless steel 7x19

 
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5. Guide to Application & Rope Duty
MOBILE
TOWER

  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 4x39+FC , 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST N/A
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 19x7+IWRC, 35x7+IWRC, 4x39+FC
  BOOM HOIST Any ropes with high tensile strength
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE 6x19+IWRC, 19x7+IWRC, 8x19+IWRC, 6x36+IWRC
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
   
DOCKSIDE
OFFSHORE PEDESTAL
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST N/A
  BOOM HOIST Any ropes with high tensile strength
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 35x7+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST Any ropes with high tensile strength
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 35x7+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
   
CONTAINER
LATTICE BOOM
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE 6x29Fi+IWRC, 8x19S+IWRC
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29F+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST 6x29F+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
   
PILING
DECK CRANE
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x19S+IWRC, 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST N/A 
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC, Any ropes with high tensile strength
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
   
STEELWORKS LADLE
UNLOADER
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x36WS+IWRC, 8x19S+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST N/A 
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC,8x19S+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST Any ropes with high tensile strength
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE 8x19S+IWRC, 8x36S+IWRC
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
   
SWIMGRAB
 
  Component Recommended Construction
  MAIN HOIST 6x29Fi+IWRC, 6x36WS+IWRC
  BOOM HOIST Anything ropes with high tensile strength
  TROLLEY / RACKING ROPE N/A 
  WHIP HOIST N/A 
 

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